Ground Ref. Maneuver - S-Turns | Gold Seal Online Ground School

Ground Ref. Maneuver - S-Turns

S-turns are one of the three fundamental ground reference maneuvers for Private Pilots. While these are three separate maneuvers, each share some major commonalities:

● Enter the maneuver on the downwind
● Perform the maneuver between 600 and 1000 feet AGL
● Correct for winds to maintain a precise ground track
● Maintain a constant altitude and airspeed
● Divide your attention between flying and watching for traffic
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